Vision and Goals

The journal was founded in 1991 by the The Academic College at Wingate to provide a platform for scientists from the College and from other institutions to share their research in fields of knowledge related to movement and sport.

BITNUAA (MOVEMENT) is a multi-disciplinary scientific peer-reviewed journal that offers the sharing of knowledge and scientific reflections by professionals in the field of physical activity.

The purpose of the journal is to encourage academic discourse in physical education and sport science disciplines.

Starting in 2018, the journal is published as Open access, in addition to a limited print edition. The journal's International Standard Serial Number is ISSN 6391-0792. It usually publishes articles in Hebrew with English abstracts. Authors interested to publish full papers in English are welcome and encouraged to write to the Editor:

Prof. Yeshayahu "Shayke" Hutzler 

The contents of our most recent issues appear below


“Cash cows” – The moral aspect
U. Carmi

Promoting competitive athletes is very expensive. Sports clubs aspiring to promote such athletes, have difficulty doing so without financial support from an outside source. Consequently, these clubs need many young, dues-paying members to subsidize the talented athletes. These young members constitute the base of the pyramid, while those who are more talented are positioned at the vertex. Little effort is invested in these young members. Indeed, for the talented athletes they are rivals for practice and training time and are mainly seen as "cash cows." This is the case in almost all sports clubs, to the point that it is difficult to imagine how such clubs can exist and develop without a large number of active members. This paper seeks to examine the ethical aspects of nurturing talented athletes by "using" other children as cash cows, yet without adopting a judgmental stance toward this practice. The ethical aspects of this practice will be examined based upon the utilitarian approach of John Stuart Mills and the categorical imperative of Immanuel Kant

Descriptors: Cash cows, utilitarian approach, categorical imperative

The acute effects of exhausting long-distance running on vertical jump height
N. Milo, E. F. Grosu, M. Milo

The purpose of this review is to concentrate the information gathered so far on the phenomenon in which exhausting or near-exhausting endurance runs, whether in sequence or intervals and lasting between twenty and forty minutes, exhausts vertical jump (VJ) capacity. Tests were carried out in a series of jumps, starting two minutes after the end of the run, in comparison to VJ performed after a routine warm-up (WU).     With the purpose of examining leg power production among long-distance runners, it was found that a VJ was higher after an exhaustive endurance run than a VJ performed after a routine WU. This study opened the door for a series of studies performed mostly among endurance athletes and, as reviewed next, some of these studies confirmed the phenomenon and some did not.  The review indicated the following: 1. The reasons for this phenomenon are inconclusive. Some authors claim that an exhausting run enhances the use of stored elastic energy in muscle fibers. Others claim that the phenomenon is manifested as Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP), and some claim that it is related to a different unknown compensation strategy of activating or recruiting motor units for generating higher vertical jump; 2. A near-exhausting run, with approximately 85% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and lasting approximately twenty minutes, led to the higher acute vertical jump enhancement. However, this information is based on too few experiments; 3. The optimal interval between the end of the run and the jumps was found to be approximately two minutes; a longer interval brought a decline in jump height; 4. Some examinees responded to their run with a vertical jump enhancement and some did not. The reason for this is unclear. There may be a relationship between the enhancement response of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC) and aerobic capacity.

Descriptors:  Warm-up, vertical jump, exhausting endurance run, stretch-shortening cycle, counter-movement jumps, post-activation potentiation

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