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Vision and Goals

The journal was founded in 1991 by the The Academic College at Wingate to provide a platform for scientists from the College and from other institutions to share their research in fields of knowledge related to movement and sport.

BITNUAA (MOVEMENT) is a multi-disciplinary scientific peer-reviewed journal that offers the sharing of knowledge and scientific reflections by professionals in the field of physical activity.

The purpose of the journal is to encourage academic discourse in physical education and sport science disciplines.

Starting in 2018, the journal is published as Open access, in addition to a limited print edition. The journal's International Standard Serial Number is ISSN 6391-0792. It usually publishes articles in Hebrew with English abstracts. Authors interested to publish full papers in English are welcome and encouraged to write to the Editor:

Prof. Yeshayahu "Shayke" Hutzler shayke@wincol.ac.il 

Current Issue

Movement, Vol. 11(4), 2018

The contents of our most recent issues appear below


Movement, Vol. 11(3), 2018

Movement, Vol. 11(2), 2016

 Movement, Vol. 11(1), 2015

 Movement, Vol. 10(4), 2014

Movement, Vol. 10(3), 2013 

"Cash cows" – The moral aspect

U. Carmi

Promoting competitive athletes is very expensive. Sports clubs aspiring to promote such athletes, have difficulty doing so without financial support from an outside source. Consequently, these clubs need many young, dues-paying members to subsidize the talented athletes. These young members constitute the base of the pyramid, while those who are more talented are positioned at the vertex. Little effort is invested in these young members. Indeed, for the talented athletes they are rivals for practice and training time and are mainly seen as "cash cows." This is the case in almost all sports clubs, to the point that it is difficult to imagine how such clubs can exist and develop without a large number of active members. This paper seeks to examine the ethical aspects of nurturing talented athletes by "using" other children as cash cows, yet without adopting a judgmental stance toward this practice. The ethical aspects of this practice will be examined based upon the utilitarian approach of John Stuart Mills and the categorical imperative of Immanuel Kant.

Descriptors: Cash cows, utilitarian approach, categorical imperative

The acute effects of exhausting long-distance running on vertical jump height

N. Milo, E. F. Grosu, M. Milo

The purpose of this review is to concentrate the information gathered so far on the phenomenon in which exhausting or near-exhausting endurance runs, whether in sequence or intervals and lasting between twenty and forty minutes, exhausts vertical jump (VJ) capacity. Tests were carried out in a series of jumps, starting two minutes after the end of the run, in comparison to VJ performed after a routine warm-up (WU).     With the purpose of examining leg power production among long-distance runners, it was found that a VJ was higher after an exhaustive endurance run than a VJ performed after a routine WU. This study opened the door for a series of studies performed mostly among endurance athletes and, as reviewed next, some of these studies confirmed the phenomenon and some did not.  The review indicated the following: 1. The reasons for this phenomenon are inconclusive. Some authors claim that an exhausting run enhances the use of stored elastic energy in muscle fibers. Others claim that the phenomenon is manifested as Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP), and some claim that it is related to a different unknown compensation strategy of activating or recruiting motor units for generating higher vertical jump; 2. A near-exhausting run, with approximately 85% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and lasting approximately twenty minutes, led to the higher acute vertical jump enhancement. However, this information is based on too few experiments; 3. The optimal interval between the end of the run and the jumps was found to be approximately two minutes; a longer interval brought a decline in jump height; 4. Some examinees responded to their run with a vertical jump enhancement and some did not. The reason for this is unclear. There may be a relationship between the enhancement response of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC) and aerobic capacity.

Descriptors:  Warm-up, vertical jump, exhausting endurance run, stretch-shortening cycle, counter-movement jumps, post-activation potentiation


Sports, gambling and advertising: "Fill in the form – full of money" and full of stereotypes

 O. Roth-Cohen, I. Tamir

This study investigates advertising messages and creative appeals of sports gambling campaigns in Israel from the year 1951. The findings illustrate the various structures of meaning which function as a reflection of sports and society in Israel and as symbols of some of the most prominent phenomena. For example, for many years advertisements have been dominated by male presence, reflected in the featured characters and language representations. Representations of militarism were also found, as well as individualism and global influences. This research provides a better understanding of the standing of sports and the related social-cultural perceptions related to sports, as reflected in advertising campaigns.

Descriptors: Sports, sports gambling, advertising messages, society in Israel.


Retirement experiences among Israeli male professional basketball players

A. Lev, Y. Galily

The aim of this study was to consider the retirement experiences of Israeli male professional basketball players. The study proposes to examine issues related to the social perceptions and constructs of body, age, and cultural influences, as well as to the consumer world, and the interrelations between them. In-depth interviews were conducted with basketball players who played in the basketball first league, as well as players who had retired in the last 3-5 years. The findings of the study show that while in the modern age careers are perceived as a structure that enables continuous vision of life and provides the individual with a coherent life story according to which the parameters between age and gradual progress in work are created, the athletic career is more complex in that it does not give the players a continuous and coherent observation of their lives.

Descriptors: Interviews, career, athletes, consumerism.

The effectiveness of a learning strategy and practice arrangements on the acquisition of closed motor skills in children with learning disabilities

M. Shachaf, R. Lidor

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a learning strategy – The Five-Step Approach (FSA) including the practice arrangements of constant practice (CP) and variable practice (VP) – in the acquisition of closed motor skills. Fifty-two children with learning disabilities (14 girls and 38 boys; mean age = 12.18 yrs.; SD = .82) participated in the study, and were randomly assigned into four learning groups: (a) CP, (b) VP, (c) FSA + CP, and (d) FSA + VP. The participants took part in four sessions. In Sessions 1, 2, and 3 they listened to taped verbal instructions specific to their designated group, performed an acquisition task (throwing a ball at a target with their dominant hand), and then performed a bilateral transfer task (the same task with their non-dominant hand). In Session 4 the participants performed a transfer task (a bowling-type task) with their dominant hand and then with their non-dominant hand. Two variables were measured – accuracy of performance and consistency of performance. For the accuracy of performance data, the data analyses showed that the FSA + VP learners were more accurate than the learners in the other groups in the transfer task with the dominant hand. For the consistency of performance data, the analyses showed that the consistency of performance in the VP learners in the bilateral transfer task was better than in the learners in the other learning groups. In addition, the consistency of performance in the FSA + CP in the transfer task with the dominant hand was better than in the learners in the other learning conditions. It can be concluded that the combination of a learning strategy (e.g., the FSA) and practice arrangements (e.g., VP) can assist learners with learning disabilities to improve the acquisition of closed motor skills. However, additional studies are needed to further examine the contribution of learning manipulations to children with learning disabilities.

Descriptors: Children with learning disabilities, skill acquisition, learning strategies, practice arrangements.


Academia classroom teacher preparation program  Physical education student teachers' perceptions of the advantages and difficulties

S. Zach, M. Strommer

The purpose of this study was to examine how student teachers perceive their field experience in the Class Academia program. The central focus of this program is to make student teaching in schools reciprocally productive for academia and for the schools, and to groom new teachers whose induction into teaching will be easier than in the traditional program. Specifically, this study examined how physical education students perceived the advantages and difficulties of the program. The study included 10 students (6 men, 4 women), mean age 26 yrs (SD = 3.2), in their third year of studies in a physical education college. The research instrument was interviews that were conducted with all the participants at three points in time during the year: at the beginning, the middle, and at its conclusion. The research findings indicate that the students perceived the program as contributing to a gradual, developmental process of induction into the teaching profession. However, the study also found that the main difficulties facing the students not only remained unchanged during the year, but even intensified. The paper includes a list of recommendations whose implementation may improve the program in the future.

Descriptors: Class academy, student teaching, students' perception of teaching, students' expectations of teaching


Predicting health behaviors: Physical activity and healthy nutrition habits among students in Israel

H. Beck, R. Tesler, D. Moran, T. Kolobov, Y. Harel-Fisch

The World Health Organization has defined "school system" as the significant framework for health promotion, because it enables accessibility to most of the child population. The goal of the present study is to examine the association between health promotion policies of school principals and student-level factors that predict health behavior patterns: physical activity and proper nutrition. This cross-sectional study is based on data from the HBSC (Health Behavior in School-Aged Children) survey that included 7,000 students in grades 6, 8, and 10 in secular and religious public Jewish schools and in Arab schools in Israel, and about 126 principals. The findings of the study indicate that: at the student level boys perform physical activity more frequently than girls (B=0.80, p<0.01); with increasing age students from a high socio-economic background are more physically active (B=-0.34, p<0.01); and, students in religious public Jewish schools perform less physical activity compared to students in secular public Jewish schools (B=-0.37, p<0.01). At the multi-level, implementation of a policy that encourages physical activity is a predictor of physical activity habits at the student level (B=0.09, p<0.05). Moreover, findings show that school nutrition policies (OR=0.89, p<0.05) and principals’ commitment to health promotion (OR=1.13, p<0.01) predict healthy eating habits among students. Findings also indicate that students in the Arab sector consume less healthy food compared to students in public Jewish schools (OR=0.54, p<0.05). The results of the current study emphasize the importance of implementing health promotion policies in schools among principals to improve students’ physical activity and healthy eating habits.

Descriptors: School principals, youth, health promotion policies, physical activity, nutrition, multi-level model.






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